Are Nurse Practitioners Just As Trustworthy As Doctors?

There are approximately 200,000 licensed Nurse Practitioners ("NP") in the United States, making it likely that you will run into one at some point. Contrary to popular belief, for the average person's normal needs, NPs may be just as helpful as regular doctors, and are often easier to schedule an appointment with.

Are Nurse Practitioners Trustworthy?

Like medical doctors, Nurse Practitioners are trained in all areas of primary care, including diagnosis, treatment, prevention, health education, medication prescription, and medication management. They have completed registered nursing school as well as graduate-level or doctoral-level educations that include didactic and clinical coursework, and are licensed to diagnose and treat patients without supervision from a medical physician. Their Master's programs may take up to three years while their Doctorate programs can take up to six years. You may find them working in a private practice, a school, a nursing home, in the emergency room, or in public health departments. Over 50% work in family or adult practices, but others also specialize in gerontology, neonatology, oncology, pediatrics, psychiatric-mental health, women's health, and acute care. Every two years they are required to show proof of continuing medical education to renew their license to practice in all 50 states. They also work collaboratively with medical physicians, especially if faced with a new or unfamiliar situation.

The American Association of Nurse Practitioners recently published a study summarizing evidence that compared patients under NP care with those under the care of regular physicians. The study found that patients under NPs had higher satisfaction, fewer readmissions to the hospital or visits to the emergency room, and higher rates of avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations. Additionally, they may also be a more cost-effective alternative to doctors, due in large part to lower educational costs – approximately 25% that of medical school.

What Are The Benefits Of Seeing A Nurse Practitioner Instead Of A Doctor?

NPs provide almost all of the services that doctors provide, such as:

– Examining and diagnosing patients
– Treating short-term issues and prescribing medications or other treatments
– Treating long-term issues like diabetes or high blood pressure
– Providing healthy lifestyle counseling and education on disease prevention
– Managing consistent, overall care for patients (like primary care physicians)

In addition, NPs tend to focus more on preventative care, as they may often be less busy with appointments than regular physicians and have more time to listen and discuss preventative issues such as quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and keeping regular exercise habits. Depending on where you live, they may also be more readily available than a primary care physician, especially if you are not located in an urban metropolis. The United States has a shortage of primary care providers, so the convenience of scheduling with a Nurse Practitioner may be crucial if you have a pressing need to be seen by a healthcare professional.

Of course, whether you choose an NP or a medical physician, you should be mindful of their communication style and the natural rapport you develop with them. Always follow your intuition about whether or not you trust that person with your healthcare.

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Luxury Hotels Vs Budget Hotels

A hotel is defined as "an establishment that provides paid accommodation on a short-term basis." (See 1.)

In the early years of the hotel, accommodations were very basic, usually a room that has a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand. These days, most rooms are equipped with modern facilities. In addition to bathrooms, there is air conditioning, a telephone, television, Wi-Fi (internet connectivity), and a mini-bar with snacks and drinks.

Hotel accommodations throughout the years have changed dramatically. There are several different types of hotels to suit almost every individual's tastes, needs and most importantly, budget. The two main types of hotels are luxury hotels and budget hotels. Although both have similar basic amenities, these two types of hotels have significant differences:

Budget Hotels

As the name suggests, these hotels were established for people who have a small budget and therefore want to spend as little as possible. The rooms in these hotels usually have the basic facilities such as a bed and washing facilities and most of them have communal toilets. Most budget hotels are older. They are clean but not as fancy as luxury hotels. Some of these budget hotels are equipped with worn fixtures and they do not offer anything free except maybe a simple breakfast or newspaper which is sometimes included in the price that they charge.

Rates for budget hotels vary greatly depending on the location. In Los Angeles alone, budget hotels can charge anywhere from $ 45 to $ 119 per day.

Luxury Hotels

Luxury Hotels are for people who are used to lavish lifestyles. The employees at these hotels are specially trained to cater to everything that the guests need. They aim to provide their guests with all the luxuries they desire during their stay. These hotels were built in such a way that their guests' stay is absolutely as stress free as possible. In addition to basic amenities in luxurious rooms, these hotels are usually equipped with spas that offer massages, gyms that have the latest exercise equipment, beauty centers that offer a wide range of beauty treatments, swimming pools, in house bars and restaurants and laundry service .

These services of course come with a much higher price compared to budget hotels. Other services that you can have in luxury hotels are free room service, free newspapers and even better channel selections on your television. You even get to use robes and slippers while staying in these hotels.

As with budget hotels, rates for luxury hotels vary greatly depending on the location. Luxury Hotels in London charge anywhere from 240 to 525 pound sterling per day.

There is truth in the saying "You get what you pay for." So, for people who have the money to splurge on expensive hotel accommodations, staying in a luxury hotel would be best if they would like to have the best service that money can buy. But for people who have a limited budget but need a place to stay while they are away from home, they are better off staying at budget hotels.

For travellers who wish to get reservations way ahead of time, in the hotel of their choice, they can go online and check out the websites of different hotels all over the world.

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotel

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"How to Draw Cars Like a Pro" – Is it Worth It?

Is "How To Draw Cars Like A Pro" still the best book on how to draw cars? There's only so much you can get from looking at step by step car drawing pictures and this book doesn't do much to help that. A lot of people are looking for better and more interactive ways to learn, so does this book cut it and what's the better alternative?

In my opinion "How To Draw Cars Like a Pro" might be one of those things you buy excitedly, look through, get bored and then store in a cupboard where it can try and teach the dust mites how to draw a car. This is a problem with a lot of drawing books these days, they're just not fun enough to read and you actually have to work hard not to get too bogged down in them. So is there a solution to this problem or are all us car enthusiasts doomed to turn page after page of drudgery?

Luckily no! This problem has forced authors to try something new and push the boundaries. They've done this by creating e-books. Why is an e-book better than an actual book? Because e-books can contain videos, can be updated regularly and can be downloaded instantly. You can have someone talking to you in a video, guiding you through every step involved in learning how to draw cars. And your never going to get coffee stains on it!

E-books really are a much better idea if you want to learn how to draw a car. If you order a book like "How To Draw Cars Like A Pro", you will end up having to pay for shipping and waiting a week or more before you even get the book. By then you might not even want to draw anymore!

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Alternative Investment Fund Regulations

What is an Alternative Investment Fund (AIF)

AIF is an Alternative Investment Fund Regulations privately pooled investment vehicle which collects funds from investors, whether Indian or foreign, for investing it in accordance with a defined investment policy for the benefit of its investors. AIF may be in the form of a trust or a company or a limited liability partnership or a body corporate.

Why AIF

AIF Regulations endeavor to extend the perimeter of regulation to unregulated funds with a view to ensuring systemic stability, increasing market efficiency, encouraging the formation of new capital and consumer protection.

Who are not covered

Currently, the AIF Regulations do not apply to mutual funds, collective investment schemes, family trusts, ESOP and other employee welfare trusts, holding companies, special purpose vehicles, funds managed by securitisation or reconstruction companies and any such pool of funds which is directly regulated by any other regulator in India.

Categories of AIFs

An AIF needs to seek registration broadly under one of the 3 categories –

Category I AIF: The following are covered under Category I

1. Funds investing in start-up or early stage ventures or social ventures or SMEs or infrastructure

2. Other sectors or areas which the government or regulators consider as socially or economically desirable including the Venture Capital Funds

3. AIFs with positive spillover effects on the economy, for which certain incentives or concessions might be considered by SEBI or Government of India or other regulators in India

Category II AIF: The following are covered under Category II

1. AIFs for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator

2. Which shall not undertake leverage other than to meet day-to-day operational requirements as permitted in these regulations

3. Which shall include Private Equity Funds, Debt Funds, Fund of Funds and such other funds that are not classified as category I or III

Category III AIF: The following get covered under Category III

1. The AIFs including hedge funds which trade with a view to making short term returns;

2. Which employ diverse or complex trading strategies

3. Which may employ leverage including through investment in listed or unlisted derivatives

Applicability of AIF Regulations to Real Estate Funds

After knowing what an AIF is and its broad categories, we analyze whether AIF Regulations are applicable to the Real Estate Funds

Firstly AIF has to seek registration under AIF Regulations under one of the three categories stated above. Therefore if a Fund does not fall under any of the three categories stated above, then it will not seek the registration with SEBI.

If we look at the Category 1, registration is required by funds which invest in start-up or early stage ventures or social ventures or SMEs or infrastructure

If we look at the definition of infrastructure, Explanation to Regulation 2 (m) states that Infrastructure shall be as defined by the Government of India from time to time.

And in the normal parlance, the term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, electrical grids,

telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.

Therefore infrastructure does not include the real estate or construction activity since this activity deals in investing in land, developing the land by way of construction of flats, townships and other residential and commercial projects.

But if the real estate fund carries on certain projects for a social purpose like purchasing land for charity etc .; then the fund may be covered under social venture funds.

The clause further states that 'or other sectors or areas which the government or regulators consider as socially or economically desirable and such other Alternative Investment Funds as may be specified;'

The AIF Regulations have been notified just a few days back and till date, no other AIF funds have been specified in the Category 1 by the Government. Further what the government or regulators consider as socially and economically viable is a very broad concept. However, till the Government specifically comes out with specific inclusions under Category 1; a Real Estate Fund will not be covered under Category 1 and therefore would not require Registration.

Further, the clause also states that – Alternative Investment Funds which are generally perceived to have positive spillover effects on economy and for which the Board or Government of India or other regulators in India might consider providing incentives or concessions will bee included

By adding these lines to the Category 1, SEBI has made the category 1 very vague and open to dispute and litigations since what SEBI intends with positive spillover effects on the economy is not defined or clarified. Different people or organizations may have a different opinion on this which would lead to unnecessary litigations and hardships to business owners. However, till any clarity comes on this, the business owners need to take a cautious approach to the decision of seeking registration under AIF regulations.

Category II AIF

Now we examine whether a Real Estate Fund falls under the Category II AIF

If we look at the funds covered by Category II above, they

1. Shall not fall in Category I and III

2. Shall not undertake leverage or borrowing other than to meet day-to-day operational requirements and as permitted by these regulations;

3. Shall be funded such as private equity funds or debt funds for which no specific incentives or concessions are given by the government or any other Regulator

For Real Estate Fund under Category I, we notice that at present it does not fall under Category I and it also does not fall under Category III since these are basically hedge funds. Further, no specific incentives or concessions are given by the Government to the Real Estate Sector. Therefore if we look at the applicability of Real Estate Fund under Category II, these funds may fall under the Category II AIFs if they do not take leverage or borrowing except for short-term requirements.

Impact of AIF on the Real Estate Funds

Under these Regulations, the minimum investment amount has to be Rs 1 crore from each investor. Therefore attracting the funds from the investors would become tough for the real estate funds, who used to raise amounts as less as INR 1 million from the investors. Now they would need to find high-value investors though this is not the only challenge that lies ahead for those raising domestic corpuses. They now also have to invest 2.5% of the corpus or Rs 5 crore, whichever is lower, to ensure that the managing company risk is aligned with that of the investor. Moreover, a single investment in a company or a project cannot exceed 25% of the entire corpus.

Further a Real Estate Fund registered in the form of an LLP also would be covered under the AIF Regulations. In an LLP Structure, since the investors are also partners, the risk to the rights of the investors being misused is very minimum. Therefore applying the AIF Regulations to the LLP Structure would reduce the flexibility available to such a Structure.

Conclusion

If we look at the AIF Regulations from a short term perspective, in light of the difficult fund raising environment today, the higher ticket size for investors could possibly throw up some challenges and could in a manner constrict the growth of the asset class, but clearly , in the long run, these regulations appear to have an element of maturity to play a pivotal role in the development and shaping up of the future of alternate asset class in India. It is also clear that alternative investments are more sophisticated and risky as compared to investments in equity and debt and till market matures it is advisable that only HNIs and well informed investors make an investment in this asset class and once the market matures it is made open to all. In the long run, we may see more investments in the Alternative asset class (in terms of quantum and maturity) due to the increased investor confidence in these funds.

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Four Types of Marketing For Small Businesses

As a small business owner, you most likely spend quite a large amount of time trying to discern new ways to gain customers. Marketing can be a fun or stressful business. They key is to understand the types of marketing.

Instead of sending your marketing budget in many different directions, you can choose a specific type and be consistent with it. You will quickly see that your marketing budget pays off much more quickly.

Here, you will find information on four of the main types of marketing. This way, you will be able to choose the marketing actions that will work best for your business. You will then be able to point your marketing budget in the right direction.

1. Blanket marketing is a type that is often used by larger business. Blanket marketing means that you spend money advertising to everyone. Many people choose to do blanket marketing by advertising in magazines or newspapers. You will not really have control of who sees your advertising, but you will have the potential to reach many people.

The downside to blanket marketing is that it can be quite expensive, and you could be wasting money marketing to people who may never become your customers at all. Blanket marketing is best for those who have plenty of funds available and who feel that they will be able to gain many customers from the plan.

2. Targeted marketing is a method in which you choose a certain demographic and only market to them. This could mean that you advertise to everyone in a certain area. Alternatively, you could advertise to everyone in a certain age range.

The great thing about targeted marketing is that you will have a much better chance at getting customers since you will be advertising to the types of people who would most likely become customers. The downside is that it will take a little legwork to determine who your target is and then find the right way to advertise to them.

3. Social media marketing could be called the new kid in town since it is relatively a young concept. With this marketing, you use any one of the many popular social media sites to advertise your company. You can also use a daily blog to garner business.

The downside to this type of marketing is that you will be sending your information out to many people who may not be interested at all. With blogs, you will have to take the time to keep the blog up to date. Otherwise, people may stop reading it.

4. The last type of marketing is not marketing at all. There are not upsides to this. It may seem like a way to save money, but when your business fails, you will actually lose a great deal of money. It is extremely important to find marketing funds within your budget.

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What Employers Really Look For When Hiring a College Graduate in 2009

Even though we are in a recession; the war for talent still exists. Now more than ever employers are looking even more closely for individuals who can "contribute to the organizations bottom line." Very simply, employers are looking for candidates who have the right degree and skill-sets necessary for success in the position they are trying to fill. This may appear to be an obvious statement; but, many college graduates don't take this basic message to heart. The completion of a degree does not guarantee a job. Employers want to know what you will do for them.

The 2008 survey conducted by collegegrad.com indicated that 44% of the responding employers ranked the graduates major as the top priority, interviewing skills placed second, a graduates internship and experience ranked third, and 10% of respondents cited the college the student graduated from came in fourth as a priority in their hiring consideration process. According to the National Association of Colleges and Businesses 2009 job survey, the top 5 personal qualities / skills employers seek, are: communication skills (verbal and written), a strong work ethic, teamwork skills (works well with others), initiative and analytical skills in that order.

The above is useful information to consider when preparing to look for a job; However, to compete most effectively, candidates need to know more, and do more, with the information so they can set themselves apart from others in today's competitive job market. And … in addition to the above, there are other important considerations organizations look for when considering candidates for a position.

When you get by the obvious, right major, relevant skill set and the ability to interview and possibly the completion of a well directed internship, the "attitude" of the candidate becomes one of the major factors in the hiring process. In fact, the majority of employers in good organizations have adopted the mantra "hire attitude, train skill." They have come to realize over time that smart people can learn new skills, but individuals with a poor attitude most often cannot be change, nor does the organization want to invest the time, money and effort to change a person's attitude. The message about a great attitude is not being imparted strongly to very many graduates. One of the major keys to employment is a great, genuine and positive attitude!

Secondly, your demonstrated work ethic is critical to your potential employer. What will you do in your new job that will fill the employer's needs? What have you learned in college, internships, part time jobs, volunteer work or life experiences that will enable you to apply and take advantage of opportunities in their organization?

Most college graduates are "theory smart." They know what the book says and have proven their ability to pass curriculum requirements, the big question the employer is concerned about is "can you apply in the real world what you have learned." Can you write a report which clearly communicates and has impact? Can you effectively communicate within a team setting to help bring a project to a successful conclusion? Do you have a "get it done in a cost effective manner" attitude? Being able to demonstrate how you will apply the theory you have learned in school to real situations in the workplace, will give you a leg up on the competition.

Third, can you demonstrate leadership skills in the workplace? Leadership shows a willingness to take an active interest in something or someone to the next level. As a college graduate, most often you will quickly be expected to take on the responsibility of a leadership role in your career. This can be in the form of project management or a team leadership role. If you are a leader verses a follower, and can provide leadership examples, employers will be more likely to hire you. Your leadership abilities are also a good indication to the hiring organization that you are a self-starter and a take charge person.

The over-riding message expressed by employers in all segments of the for-profit and non-profit organizations is this … Employers are looking for people who can do the job. Employers want people who have the necessary academic, technical and interpersonal skills and competencies required for the position for which they are being considered. One last quality hiring employers like to see is the knowledge the applicant has of their organization. Research the company as deeply as possible so you demonstrate in your resume, cover letter and interview your knowledge of their operation. The extent of your "company knowledge" will enable you to ask pointed and clear questions and demonstrate your sincere interest in their organization. If you take a serious interest in them, they might just return the same to you.

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Know Your Mini Moto

The Mini Moto is a small scale replica of the World Super Bikes used by the likes of Valentino Rossi and ex champion Carl Fogarty. The Mini Moto comes equipped with either a two stroke air or water cooled engine which are, depending on the model, capable of speeds of up to 60Mph.

In this article I will underline the finer points of the components that make these speeds possible.

The two Stroke Engine

The two stroke engine produces more hp per pound than the four stroke engine. The two stroke engine consists of three moving parts, the piston, the rod and the crank. The piston acts as valve that opens and closes the intake and exhaust ports that are located on the walls of the cylinder. Unlike the four stroke engine that fires only every other time of the pistons movement, the two stoke engine fires every time the piston reaches the top of its travel. This means that the time spent generating power is doubled in the two stroke engine than that of the four stroke engine, as there is no engine coasting during passive cycles. This is the main reason that the two stroke engine can rev more highly and produce more power (for its size) that the four stroke.

Fuel

The two stroke engine needs to be run on a mixture of petrol and two stroke oil. This is so that the engine is kept lubricated whilst in use.

99% of all starting problems are caused by fuel problems. These can stem from bad or old fuel and improperly mixed fuel (please see mixing chart).
Do not use fuels that contain alcohol, as the can cause you bike to run 'lean'. Be advised some racing fuels contain alcohol and are best avoided ..
We recommend that you use normal petrol for a garage and a quality two stroke oil.

A mixture that is too lean Ie not enough two stroke oil can damage your mini moto's engine as the moving parts are not properly lubricated. This can cause the engine to seize. However a mixture that is too rich can choke the engine and effect the performance and cause starting problems. You can tell if your mini moto is running too richly by the plumes of white smoke coming out of the exhaust and the lack of performance. A rich mixture (25: 1) is needed to lubricate the engine during the 'run in' period, you may experience a lack of performance during this period. The pocket bike may run more slowly and acceleration can be sluggish, however when you change to a mixture of 50: 1 you will really notice a difference. The leaner mix ignites in the combustion chamber faster and with a more explosive force than the richer mix. This means higher revs which means more power and acceleration.

We recommend that a fuel mixture of 25: 1 is used to 'run in' you mini moto, and a mixture of 50: 1 is used thereafter.

'Running in'

Your mini moto should be 'run in' for the first 3-4 tanks of fuel. During this period we recommend that you use a fuel mixture of 25: 1. This means a mixture that is made up of 25 parts petrol to 1 part of two stroke oil. During the 'running in' period be careful to not rev the engine to its maximum as this can damage the engine. The 'running in' period will allow the moving parts to become well oiled and the clutch and brakes to 'bed' themselves in. After you have run the minimoto on this fuel mixture for 3-4 tanks, check the chain and tighten accordingly, check the tire pressure, tighten the bolts on the brakes, forks and wheels. You may also need to readjust the throttle settings to allow for the higher revs that changing to a leaner fuel mix produces. The bike should now be ready for a fuel mixture of 50: 1.

Clutch

The mini moto uses a centrifugal clutch to power the drive the sprocket, which in turn drives the back wheel of your mini moto.

When you start your mini moto the clutch spins as the engine ticks over. The clutch is engaged when you pull back on the throttle. The increase in speed of revolution of the clutch makes the clutch expand and grip the inside of the clutch bell which turns the sprocket that drives the back wheel of your pocket bike.

The clutch can be set up in different ways depending on the type of performance that you want from your minimoto. Adjustable clutches are not standard on mini moto's but an after market Polani or Blata style adjustable clutch can be used in your new mini moto. These allow the rider to adjust the mini moto's set up in according to their preference. Setting the clutch to engage too late when the engine has built up too much power may cause the clutch to slip and never fully engage. This can result in excessive wearing. However setting the clutch to engage too early, before the power has built up in the engine can cause your pocket bike to 'bog down', resulting in slow acceleration. The perfect set up is to get the clutch to engage just as the engine has built enough power to rocket the mini moto away, but without making the clutch slip, this is achievable through trial and error.

Spark Plug

Making sure that your spark plug is fresh is important in a two stroke mini moto engine. You can tell a lot from the color of the spark plug. The top part of your spark plug is covered in ceramic insulator which, when brand new is white. This part of the spark plug can change color according to how your engine is running. The plug should appear as a nice tan color when the engine is running perfectly, this indicates complete combustion. A gray or white color indicates that the engine is running too lean which can result in engine damage. In this case you should clean and check your fuel system for any obstruction, check your fuel mixture, check for loose intake manifold bolts and carburettor mounting leeks, faulty gaskets and leaking crank seals. Anywhere that your engine could potentially leek and suck in fresh air can be the source of a lean condition.

A blackened or oily spark plug indicates improper combustion and is the result of running too rich. This can be caused by too much oil in the mixture or the spark plug could be faulty and misfiring. Check the fuel mixture and replace the spark plug.

Air Filter

Your new mini moto is equipped with an air filter. Some bikes such as the B1 Origami rep liquid cooled and the Mini Dirt bike have a 'cone' style K and N style air filter. The 2005 mk2 mini moto and the B1 Origami Replica air cooled bikes have a standard mini moto air filter. Both air filters purify the intake of air that is sucked into the carburettor. This means that the air filter should be cleaned regularly as the mini moto's performance can begin to suffer as the engine can become starved of air if the air filter is choked with debris. To reach the air filter, remove the bikes bottom fairing, remove the protective cover by unscrewing the holding screws. Clean the air filter in petrol but make sure that the filter is dry before reattaching to you mini moto.

Tires

The tires on your mini moto are filled with air (pneumatic). Please consult your mini moto handbook for the appropriate psi. It is important to check the tire pressure regularly, an under inflated tire will affect the performance of your mini moto, acceleration can become sluggish and cornering can become dangerous.

Chain

Before riding your mini moto you need to make sure that the front and back sprockets are aligned and that the chain is perfectly straight running between them. Once you have established this make sure that the chain is tensioned correctly (please see your mini moto handbook). To test the tension of the chain you can manually push the pocket bike, if you hear a 'pinging' or 'popping' sound the chain is too loose. If the chain is noisy and starts to bind the chain is too tight.
Make sure that the chain is well oiled. The chain needs to be oiled before every ride.

Gearing

The gearing of you mini moto is dictated by the number of the teeth on the front sprocket and on the back sprocket. The sprockets can be changed as an easy way to manipulate top end speed and acceleration, quite like changing gear on a mountain bike. A front sprocket with more teeth will improve acceleration, however the top end speed will be reduced. A larger rear sprocket will produce a higher top speed but acceleration will suffer. The gearing on your bike can be adjusted in accordance for the track you are intending to ride Ie a small track with a lot of bends will suit gearing for improved acceleration, however a track with long straights will require a mini moto that is geared for a higher top speed.

Throttle

The throttle on your new mini moto is a 'twist grip' style throttle. When you twist the throttle the throttle cable is pulled back revving the engine. It is important to keep this cable free from obstacles and clean. If the throttle begins to feel 'loose' of 'gives', the tension of the cable can be adjusted via the adjusting screw.

Brakes

The brake system comprises of brake levers, brake cables, brake callipers and brake discs.

The brakes on your mini moto are operated by levers found on the handle bars. The right hand brake controls the front brake, and the left controls the back brake. Pulling on the handle pulls the brake cable which in turn pulls the lever located on the bake calliper. This action pushes the brake discs towards each other. This creates friction on the brake disc which slows down or stops the bike.

The brakes can be adjusted in the following ways.

The brake cable can be tensioned using the adjustment screw found on the brake lever. Unscrew the locking nut, twist the screw to reach the desired tension. Re screw the locking nut.

This is a two person job. Adjust the screw on the hand brake so that is at the end of its travel. Undo the clamp that holds the brake cable on the lever located on the brake calliper. One person needs to push the lever forward as far as it will, the second person needs to pull back on the brake cable and re fasten the clamp. The crake cable will now be highly tensioned.

Pull Start

To start the mini moto pull slowly to turn the fly wheel. This pumps some fuel around the engine, which lubricates the moving parts. Pull the pull start firmly in order to start the engine. Important, do not pull the cord to the end of its run as it can break. If the mini moto does not start check the choke and the throttle cable.

Choke

The choke controls the amount of air that is allowed into the air / fuel mix. The choke is adjusted via a lever located on the side and back of the engine. The choke is off when the lever is down, and on when the lever is up.
When you start the mini moto the choke should be on, when the mini moto is warm and ready to ride the choke needs to be off.

Carburettor

It is recommend that any adjustments to the carburettor are made by a professional. The carburettor pumps and mixes the fuel and air. The small diaphragms, orifices and ports mix the air and fuel very precisely, this process demands clean fresh fuel.

Jet

The jet can be adjusted by the screw located in the access hole to the right of the choke lever. The jet is adjusted by the manufacture however the conditions of where you wish to ride may be different, which means that you will need to make adjustments. Turning the screw clockwise will make the bike run with a leaner mixture, and counter clockwise will richen the mixture. Only adjust the screw 1 tern a at time and then test the mini moto, this is trail and error. Please note that it is best to find the optimum setting for performance and then run a slightly richer mixture as a mix that is too lean can seize the engine.

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Teen Leadership Skills: Make Public Speaking Easy by Using a Speech Structure

To become effective leaders, teens need to hone their public speaking skills. One of the fundamental skills a leadership class must teach is how to structure a speech. Read this article to learn an easy and effective speech structure to use so your message will make an impact on your audience.

Fred's Concern About His Speech

Fred has to give a speech in his leadership class next week. He is concerned because he has not given many speeches, and he does not know how he should put together the speech. He knows that public speaking is an important skill he needs to learn if he wants to become a leader. He decides to go to his leadership teacher for help. His leadership teacher offers encouragement as well as an outline of how to structure a standard speech …

In a nutshell, here's what Fred's teacher said:

"Tell them what you're going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them."

Generally, most standard speeches follow the same type of structure, which includes an introduction, a body consisting of three main points, and a conclusion.

The Three Standard Parts of a Speech Structure

Part 1. Introduction

The opening or introduction of the speech sets the tone and the theme for the speech:

  • It usually contains a quote, example, statistics, or a humorous story to get the audience's attention.
  • The speaker must also give the main topic of the speech.
  • In addition, he or she should outline the major points that are going to be made in the speech.

Part 2. Body Consisting of Three Main Points

A standard speech has a body that contains three main points:

  • These points come from the main topic of the speech given in the introduction.
  • The speaker should give examples, illustrations, statistics, stories, and / or quotes about each of the central points to support them.

Part 3. Conclusion

The classic saying about a speech is that you should "tell them what you're going to tell them, tell them what you're telling them, and then tell them what you told them." The first part represents the introduction, the next is the three main points of the body of the speech, and the last – "tell them what you told them" – is the conclusion.

In the conclusion of the speech,

  • The speaker needs to remind the audience of what the main topic was, and how each of the three main points related to it.
  • The speaker should sum up the main ideas of the speech.
  • Depending on the type of speech it is, the speaker should possibly make a call for action based on the ideas in the speech.

How Fred Applied This to His Speech

Given the outline on how to structure a speech from his high school leadership teacher, Fred worked on his speech during the week, and organized his ideas. His speech went great, as he introduced his topic, went over the main points, and gave his conclusion. His teacher was pleased and he got a lot of "high fives" from his classmates for his speech. Afterward, he thanked his student leadership teacher saying,

"Putting together a speech is not as difficult as I thought, when you have the right speech structure."

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Over-Identification of Minority Children in Special Education – What Can Be Done?

Are you concerned about the amount of minority children that are being diagnosed with disabilities in your school district? Are you worried about the large numbers of African American boys receiving special education services? Are you concerned about your child who is in a minority group and being found eligible for special education! Much has been written in the past several years about the increased numbers of poor African-American children receiving special education services. This article will discuss this issue, and also underlying causes of this.

In 1975 when the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed Congress found that poor African-American children were being placed in special education much more often than other children. These difficulties continue today. In the Findings section of IDEA 2004 Congress stated about the ongoing problems with the over-identification of minority children including mislabeling the children and high drop out rates.

About 9% of all school age children are diagnosed with a disability and receive special education services. But African-American children receive special education services at a rate about 40% higher than the national average across racial and ethnic groups at about 12.4%. Studies have shown that schools that have mostly white students and teachers, place a disproportionately high number of minority children in special education.

Also, rates of mental retardation and emotional / behavioral disturbance are extremely elevated within the African-American population, roughly twice the national average. Within the African-American population the incidence of mental retardation is approximately 220% higher than other ethnic groups. For emotional / behavioral disturbance the incidence is approximately 175% higher than other ethnic groups.

Factors that may contribute to disabilities include:

1. Health issues like prenatal care, access to medical care, child nutrition, and possible exposure to lead and other pollutants.
2. Lack of access to good quality medical care as well as services for any mental health disorders.
3. Cultural issues and values ​​or stigma attached to disability
4. Discrimination along the lines of class and race!
5. Misdiagnosis of the child's behavioral and academic difficulty.

A few ideas that could help decrease the over identification:

1. Better keeping of data to include increased information about race, gender, and race by gender categories. More detailed, systematic, and comprehensive data collections would provide a better sense of demographic representation in special education that could better help understand this issue.

2. More analytic research is needed to improve our understanding of the numerous factors that independently or in combination contribute to a disability diagnosis.

3. More people that are willing to help advocate for children in this situation. I believe that some of this issue, is related to the inability of some special education personnel to understand cultural differences.

4. Better and clearer guidelines for diagnosing disabilities that could reduce the potential for subjective judgments that are often cited for certain diagnosis.

5. More improvements are needed in general education to help children learn to read and keep up with their grade and age appropriate peers.

I hope over time this issue will get resolved so that all children receive an appropriate education.

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Direct Sales Team Vs Distributor – Which is Better For an International Market?

If you're looking to expand your sales to new markets, then there's one big question you must ask: do I build a direct sales presence or use a distributor? Each method has its benefits and drawbacks, but we're going to make a strong case to use one method over the other in almost every instance.

What's the difference between direct sales and distributors?
A direct sales presence means that your company establishes, manages, and pays a sales team of one or more people in the target market.

An outside agent is any entity that will sell your product in exchange for a service fee. One example is a sales rep, who sells your product in exchange for a percent of the sale. A distributor is similar to a rep, except they would buy product from your company and sell it directly to the end customer.

Is Direct Sales Better?
For most businesses expanding into new markets, especially international markets, hiring a distributor is a better decision-at least until there is enough return from the market to justify building a direct sales presence.

Sure, there is one major advantage to having a direct sales presence-control. Control over the day to day activities of your sales personnel is appealing to most business owners. But this control comes at a heavy price. To start, you'll need to spend the time to hire someone in that market, then train them, then equip them with sales material and management, if not office space and equipment. These costs are prohibitive for most small businesses looking to expand internationally.

And there are even more costs that we haven't mentioned yet. Each market has it's own unique laws, cultures and customs that are essential to master if your company wants to establish a successful sales presence. Japan is a classic example of a marketplace with unique legal structures and business customs that, if not followed, guarantee the failure of any sales efforts. It's hard to pin down an exact monetary value to this learning, but ask yourself this: Can you afford to establish, manage, and pay a sales force in a foreign country for at least a year while they learn the ropes and generate no revenue?

What about a Distributor? Is a Distributor better for new markets?
Distributors are a cost effective means to enter a new marketplace successfully. Here are just a few of the reasons:

  • No Overhead: Unlike running your own sales team, a distributor will take care of the hiring, managing, payment, and optimization of its channel. You're just borrowing their distribution, while they handle the maintenance.
  • Established Channel with Local Knowledge: A good distributor will already know all the laws and customs of the market you're entering. You don't need to reinvent the wheel-you can use someone who already has valuable local knowledge.
  • Understand Pricing and Purchasing Power of Market: Along with knowledge of the laws and customs comes knowledge about the most successful ways to price and market your product locally.
  • Cost Effective: Since you won't be paying for the above items, distributor relationships are much more within reach of a small business trying to enter a new market.

Using a distributor has some downsides as well, but they can be minimized by building a good relationship with a distributor.

  • Not your own people: You won't be able to directly manage every step of the process. While it may make you nervous to lose some control over the sales process, you can manage the risk by building a transparent relationship with your distributor with constant updates and feedback from both ends.
  • Distributor has many products to represent: You may not be the distributor's top priority at any given time, and you want to be sure your product is not getting shuffled to the back of the line. Once again, a well-established relationship with constant contact will ensure that your product is getting the attention it deserves.
  • Not a "turn key" solution: You can't just give the distributor your products and expect success. You'll have to manage the relationship. This takes time, but it's still less costly than trying to install a direct sales team from scratch.

So what do I do next?
If you aren't convinced that a distributor would be better for your organization than establishing a direct sales team, seek help from a consultant who has experience establishing a presence in new markets. A consultant can use his or her experience to analyze your opportunity and recommend the best course of action.

Before you choose a distributor, you need to know ….
Choosing the wrong distributor will set you up for failure. The wrong distributor simply won't generate sales, and you'll have wasted at least a year finding and setting up an unprofitable relationship.

There are certain things to look for in a distributor, and they are different for every market. The best thing to do is to find a professional, one with experience in distributor relationships, and hire that professional to help you search for and identify the right distributor.

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